An overview of the cellular structure and function

The mitochondria are the only places in the cell where oxygen is reduced and eventually broken down into water. DNA replication does not occur when the cells divide the second time, in meiosis II.

BioCoach Activity

It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. It is mechanically supported by two networks of intermediate filaments: If you were only made of one cell, you would be very limited. Capital This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST.

Outline of cell biology

Although the mitochondrial DNA is very small compared to nuclear chromosomes, [3] it codes for 13 proteins involved in mitochondrial energy production and specific tRNAs.

Mdm2 overexpression, in cooperation with oncogenic Raspromotes transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, and mdm2 expression led to tumor formation in nude mice. However, the water pores completely block ions including protonsessential to conserve the membrane's electrochemical potential difference.

Many of the reactions involved in cellular respiration happen in the mitochondria. The three-dimensional structure of DNA —the double helix —arises from the chemical and structural features of its two polynucleotide chains.

Ribosomes build proteins from the genetic instructions held within messenger RNA. Where appropriate, summaries are composed from English-language translations of non-English constitutions, which derive from official or non-official translations or machine translators.

Mitochondria - Turning on the Powerhouse

In multicellular organisms, cells can move during processes such as wound healing, the immune response and cancer metastasis. Vacuoles sequester waste products and in plant cells store water.

Molecules[ edit ] DNA — Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses.

Peroxisomes have enzymes that rid the cell of toxic peroxides. Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.

Cell (biology)

Country map Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. Living things may be single-celled or they may be very complex such as a human being. The DNA messages must therefore somehow encode proteins Figure Proteins embedded in the inner membrane and enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle ultimately release water H2O and carbon dioxide CO2 molecules from the breakdown of oxygen O2 and glucose C6H12O6.

Regardless of the type, all cells are mainly composed of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and trace amounts of a few other elements. Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fissionwhile eukaryotic cells usually undergo a process of nuclear division, called mitosisfollowed by division of the cell, called cytokinesis.

Structures[ edit ] Cell membrane — also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or "phospholipid bilayer" is a semipermeable lipid bilayer found in all cells; it contains a wide array of functional macromolecules. Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures.

The ability of each strand of a DNA molecule to act as a template for producing a complementary strand enables a cell to copy, or replicate, its genes before passing them on to its descendants. A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.a eukaryotic cell.

These membranes are related either through direct physical contact or by transfer of vesicles (sac of membrane). In spite of these links, these membranes have diverse functions and structures: nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.

As discussed in Chapter 3, the properties of a protein, which are responsible for its biological function, are determined by its three-dimensional structure, and its structure is determined in turn by the linear sequence of the amino acids of which it is composed.

Cell membranes have many proteins and glycoproteins which serve many functions, e.g.

Glossary of Biological Terms

as signal receptors and transport conduits to move molecules in and out of the cell. The video below gives a sense of the structure and function of the plasma membrane, or cell membrane, and depicts it as a "fluid mosaic.". A cell is a small, membrane-bound compartment that contains all the chemicals and molecules that help support an organism's life.

Cells are the Starting Point

An understanding of the structure of cells is one of the first steps in comprehending the complex cellular interactions that direct and produce life. Cells can be thought of as building blocks of organisms. Aquaporins are "the plumbing system for cells". Water moves through cells in an organized way, most rapidly in tissues that have aquaporin water channels.

For many years, scientists assumed that water leaked through the cell membrane, and some water does. The Medical Biochemistry Page is a portal for the understanding of biochemical, metabolic, and physiological processes with an emphasis on medical relevance.

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An overview of the cellular structure and function
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